Sunday, March 22, 2020
In Nathaniel RichÃ¢â¬â¢s essay, Ã¢â¬Å"Marlen Esparza: Going the distanceÃ¢â¬ , stated thatMarlenEsparza has a real talent for boxing. Talent is a natural ability, reflect the intelligence, great acumen, easy to cultivate and bring into play in future. Marlen Esparza who was born in Houston is a young American boxer and gets high achievement in the contest. When people look at Marlen, they will think she is a little girl, but actually she has a power and talent inside. To write this essay and affirm Esparzas talent, authors found information and interviewed not only Marlen Esparza but also her family and coach. The author is not the only person who confirms Esparzas endowment in the field of boxing, others also praised her ability. To prove his claim, Rich gives the myriad information in the essay to assert more of Esparzas talent. Everyone has at least one natural talent in a certain field. We will write a custom essay sample on Marlen Esparza or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Some people show their talent very early when they are kids, but some people just find their talent until they become adults. Marlen EsparzaÃ¢â¬â¢s talent was revealed in the sports field when she was youngand the author suggests, Marlen was always desperate to compete against her brothersÃ¢â¬ (851). Although EsparzaÃ¢â¬â¢s father desired one of his sons become a boxing legend, his younger daughter had an interest in boxing than his sons. Boxing is a sport that requires strong, healthy and high endurance, but Marlen who is a girl did not fearless when she dared to fight boxing with her brothers. This action showed a passion of a young girl who likes playing boxing that is mainly for boys instead of play activities for girls. In addition, a girl who could beat her brothersdemonstrated that she is very strong and have good stamina to pursue boxing. Inside her, talent seed had been budding when she was young. In his essay, Rich maintains, Ã¢â¬Å"She attacked that other little girl like a pit bull, like a grasshopperÃ¢â¬ ¦Her determination and stamina surprised me. That other girl was trying to survive! Ã¢â¬ (851). Bull is a symbol of strength, aggressive, eager to win, and if it see the red color, it will butt against an opponent. While Marlen fights with the other girls, she looks like a bull with full of energetic to win,ready to strike and hit the opponent. If the other girls were trying to survive to pass exercises, Marlen did not get tired or bewail the painful difficulties, and she was more and more vigorous during exercises. Indeed, only those who have a gift for boxing and passion as Marlen, who can train hard without a break. She also proved that talent can just develop if people practice, cultivate everyday and never give up. Nathaniel reveals in essay that Ã¢â¬Å"Marlen Esparza is currently ranked ninth in the worldÃ¢â¬ (853). It wasnot easy to be one of the top ten in the world, but Marlene already did that. For over 12 years, she has spent countless time to practice with hope that will attend the exams in the country and international. Her talent was recognized when she won the bronze medal in an International Olympic Committee at the London Games in 2012. In international competitions, she defeated opponents who were very proficient in boxing from other countries, so this proved that she is a great player with good technique and quick reflex while playing. Moreover, her talent has represented the younger generation potential of the United States to attend in the international arena. Everyone thought she had everything after she achieved high performance in competitions, but actually she also has to confront obstacles in life. She shared in the essay thatÃ¢â¬Å"I get mad. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t date. I havenÃ¢â¬â¢t gone out in a long timeÃ¢â¬ ¦I donÃ¢â¬â¢t have Facebook, because IÃ¢â¬â¢d be jealous of everybody. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to know what IÃ¢â¬â¢m missing. Ã¢â¬ (854). All of her time, she just practices every day becauseboxing seems to be all to her, and it also took away her free time that perhaps she can go out with friends or date with a guy. An ordinary girl can do anything they like, but Esparzas talent made her become a special girl. Behind the medal of the competition, the price for the medal is sometimes lonely when she does not have friends and jealous of normal girls. For this reason, she did not feel very happy from her victory. If she can balance her life between boxing and entertainment, she will not be pressured and feel sad anymore. Additionally, the author maintains, Ã¢â¬Å"Esparza plans on quitting after the Olympics because while male fighters can earn millions, female professionals rarely make more than $10,000 and often must fight abroadÃ¢â¬ (855). In todays society, people are still sexist in sports field because they think men are stronger and important, so they have more priority for men. Both men and women must rigorous exercise in the long time, but the amount of money of the women is very small for a title. Not only Marlen but also female fighters feel underprivileged and unfair because they cannot live with little money. As a consequence, the thought of quitting sports is often seen in the female athletes since the society do not really have respect for their talent. The gender discrimination is the real reasonto prevent the development of female talent. Esparza intended to quit boxing after the International Olympic Committee, and she will go to medical school, but noone make sure that it will truly better for her or not. Her talent is boxing which is a sport that she is very passionate. More than 12 years to pursue boxing, she love boxing and it gives her power to do intense exercise. She is really herself when she lives with boxing because it is her dream. On the other hand, if she went to medical school, it will be a completely different field. Marlen cannot study well, and it will waste time to study when she does not have an interest in the medical. She will be an anesthesiologist all her life, but if one day, when she misses boxing, she cannot go back because numerous other young talents have developed at that time.
Thursday, March 5, 2020
How to Get Into NYU 4 Key Tips to Build a Great Application SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips If you want to go to NYU, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll need to make sure your application is strong enough to stand out from the crowd of other applicants. NYUÃ¢â¬â¢s acceptance rate is falling every year, so youÃ¢â¬â¢ll need all parts of your application to be competitive if you hope to be admitted to NYU. In this article, weÃ¢â¬â¢ll teach you everything you need to know to get into NYU. First, weÃ¢â¬â¢ll talk about how hard it is to get into NYU in the first place, taking a look at the average test scores and grades of admitted applicants. Next, weÃ¢â¬â¢ll discuss NYUÃ¢â¬â¢s admissions requirements and essays. Finally, weÃ¢â¬â¢ll give tips to teach you how to get into NYU. How Hard Is It To Get Into NYU? NYU has been getting more and more competitive over the recent years. In 2018, NYUÃ¢â¬â¢s acceptance rate fell to a record low: 19%. That means that NYU admits 19 out of every 100 applicants. An acceptance rate of just 19% means that NYU is highly selective - and getting even more so. Just a few years ago, NYUÃ¢â¬â¢s acceptance rate was in the 35%, meaning that itÃ¢â¬â¢s fallen by nearly half in a short while. Each subsequent year, NYU admits a smaller and smaller percentage of students, meaning that the acceptance rate for the Class of 2023 may be even more competitive than 2022Ã¢â¬â¢s was. What Is NYU Looking for in Its Students? NYU prizes diversity: it has the highest number of international students in the United States and students from all 50 states in the US. In 2017, 20% of NYUÃ¢â¬â¢s incoming freshmen class was from outside of the US. NYU also sends more students abroad than any other American university, so itÃ¢â¬â¢s safe to say that the university values exposing its students to other cultures and ways of life. With satellite campuses in fourteen different countries around the world, NYU has unparalleled opportunities to broaden your horizons. While the university prizes diversity, itÃ¢â¬â¢s equally clear that NYU prizes strong academics and hard work. While acceptance rates reached a record low this year, the average test scores of admitted students reached a record high, meaning that incoming students are exceptionally well-qualified, too. Can You Apply to NYU Early? NYU offers early decision to applicants that are certain NYU is the right school for them. If you apply for early decision admission, and are admitted under the early decision notification, you are expected to enroll at NYU. In addition, you have to withdraw your applications from other schools, and cannot submit new applications. Early decision offers to NYU are binding, unless you donÃ¢â¬â¢t receive enough financial aid to be able to attend. If you donÃ¢â¬â¢t get into NYU during the early decision period, you wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be able to apply again regular decision. NYU offers two early decision dates: November 1 and January 1. Students who apply at the November 1 deadline receive their decision on December 15; students who apply on January 1 learn on February 15. It can pay off to apply early to NYU. For the Class of 2021, for instance, the overall admissions rate was roughly 28% while early decision candidates were admitted at a rate of roughly 38%. That means that you have a statistically higher chance of getting admitted to NYU early than you do as a regular decision candidate - provided, of course, that your application is strong. NYU Application Deadlines and Requirements NYU has three degree-granting campuses: New York, Abu Dhabi, and Shanghai. The admissions process is the same for all three schools. In order to apply as a first-year at NYU, you must be either: Currently in high school, even if taking college courses, or Participating in a dual-enrollment program, even if youÃ¢â¬â¢re earning enough credits for an associateÃ¢â¬â¢s degree, or Graduated with a GED or high school diploma equivalency test and not enrolled in a degree-seeking program. To apply, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll need to complete the Common Application and have a recommendation from your guidance counselor and up to two teachers. NYU doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t accept the Coalition or Universal applications. You'll also need to send in your official high school transcripts and official transcripts for any college-level work you've completed. If you're applying to the Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development and Tisch School of the Arts, you'll need to complete an audition or submit a portfolio of work in place of standardized testing. Steinhardt requires an audition or portfolio for all applicants to the Music Department with the exception of Educational Theatre, and a portfolio for those applying to Studio Art. Tisch requires an audition or portfolio for applicants to all programs with the exception of Interactive Media Arts. If you didn't apply to Steinhardt or Tisch, you'll need to submit your standardized test scores. Regular decisions applicants must submit their applications by January 1 and are notified on April 1. Want to get into NYU or your personal top choice college? We can help. PrepScholar Admissions is the world's best admissions consulting service. We combine world-class admissions counselors with our data-driven, proprietary admissions strategies. We've overseen thousands of students get into their top choice schools, from state colleges to the Ivy League. Learn more about PrepScholar Admissions to maximize your chance of getting in. What GPA Do I Need to Get Into NYU? Most students admitted to NYU have a GPA of 3.6 or higher, which means that youÃ¢â¬â¢ll want to achieve at least a 3.6 to be seriously considered as an applicant. In order to achieve a 3.6, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll need to earn mostly AÃ¢â¬â¢s and A-Ã¢â¬â¢s on your coursework. If your GPA is below 3.6, you can try to make up for that on other parts of your application, like your test scores or your portfolio, if youÃ¢â¬â¢re applying to Tisch or Steinhardt. What Test Scores Do I Need to Get Into NYU? NYU requires that you submit standardized test scores unless youÃ¢â¬â¢re applying to Steinhardt or Tisch, where your portfolio can take the place of test scores. NYU accepts a wide variety of test scores, though most students submit SAT or ACT scores. HereÃ¢â¬â¢s the full breadth of scores NYU accepts: SAT; or ACT; or International Baccalaureate (IB) Diploma; or Three (3) SAT Subject Test scores; or Three (3) AP Exam scores; or Three (3) IB higher-level exam scores if not an IB Diploma candidate; or Other international examinations that show you completed, or if submitting predicted results show you will complete, your secondary education. You can find more information on these international examinations here. For this article, weÃ¢â¬â¢ll focus mainly on SAT and ACT scores, since those are what the majority of applicants submit. While NYU doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have cut offs for SAT or ACT scores, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll need to make sure your scores are competitive with the average scores of admitted applicants. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s take a look at those. What SAT Scores Do I Need to Get Into NYU? As NYUÃ¢â¬â¢s acceptance rate lowers, the average SAT score of admitted applicants rises. The Class of 2022 had the highest average SAT composite score yet: 1440. That means youÃ¢â¬â¢ll need to score at (or very near) 1440 to be considered competitive with your fellow applicants. NYU doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t state which SAT scores they accept on their website (all, highest, etc), so youÃ¢â¬â¢ll need to contact the admissions office to learn which of your scores factor in. What ACT Scores Do I Need to Get Into NYU? NYUÃ¢â¬â¢s average ACT score is also rising. The average ACT score of admitted applicants to NYU is 30. Even though NYU likely says they have no minimum ACT requirement, if you apply with a 28 or below, you'll have a hard time getting in, unless you have something else very impressive in your application. There are so many applicants scoring 30 and above that a 28 will look academically weak. NYU Application Essays You'll need to submit both the regular Common App materials as well as an NYU supplement, which includes a short essay, for your NYU application. The NYU essay prompt asks you to answer the simple question: why do you want to go to NYU? HereÃ¢â¬â¢s the text of the prompt in full: We would like to know more about your interest in NYU. We are particularly interested in knowing what motivated you to apply to NYU and more specifically, why you have applied or expressed interest in a particular campus, school, college, program, and/or area of study? If you have applied to more than one, please tell us why you are interested in each of the campuses, schools, colleges, or programs to which you have applied. You may be focused or undecided, or simply open to the options within NYU's global network; regardless, we want to understand - Why NYU? The essay has a 400 word limit, which means that you have space to really expand on what specifically attracts you to NYU. While you should make it clear why you want to attend NYU with your essay, you don't need to agonize for hours over it. Ultimately, other parts of your application (including your test scores and grades/course rigor, and letters of recommendation) are more important factors to your acceptance. You just need to show that you've done at least a little research into NYU and why you want to apply there in particular. For a more in-depth look at how to answer this prompt, check out our article dedicated specifically to acing this essay. Tips for Getting Into NYU ItÃ¢â¬â¢s difficult to get into NYUÃ¢â¬ ¦ and itÃ¢â¬â¢s getting more difficult every year! If you want to be admitted to NYU this year, follow these key tips for how to get into NYU. #1: Reflect NYUÃ¢â¬â¢s Values NYU values diversity and providing its students with a truly global experience. If you want your application to stand out, you can talk about a.) how these values are important to you, too, and b.) how youÃ¢â¬â¢ll take advantage of this policy when you go to NYU. You can talk about this as part of your why NYU essay. Be sure to have concrete examples of how youÃ¢â¬â¢ll engage with this mindset - donÃ¢â¬â¢t just say it would be fun to go party in another country, have specific programs, classes or experiences in mind. #2: Polish Your Application As NYU gets more and more competitive, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll need to put more and more effort into making your application equally competitive. Your test scores should meet or exceed the average scores of admitted applicants, as should your grades. Ask for letters of recommendation from teachers who really know you and your work to give an idea of why NYU canÃ¢â¬â¢t live without you. #3: Wow With Your Portfolio If youÃ¢â¬â¢re applying to Steinhardt or Tisch, your portfolio needs to be stellar. Pick examples of your work that showcase your specific talents and individuality. Your portfolio should have a point-of-view and personality - donÃ¢â¬â¢t submit generic work that could be attributed to anyone. #4: Have a Spike When youÃ¢â¬â¢re applying to college, itÃ¢â¬â¢s tempting to seem well-rounded and interested in all the things. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t do that. Your application wonÃ¢â¬â¢t stand out if youÃ¢â¬â¢re mediocre in band, on the track team, and on student council. It will stand out if you travel to Japan to perform with a world-class performance ensemble or qualify for the Olympic trials in shot put. When your focus is on one thing, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll be better at it than if you have to split your time and attention. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s Next? Looking for application tips for other selective schools? Read our complete guides to the University of California system and to the Georgetown application. Should you apply early or regular decision to college? Find out the pros and cons of early decision in this article. Want to build the best possible college application? We can help. PrepScholar Admissions is the world's best admissions consulting service. We combine world-class admissions counselors with our data-driven, proprietary admissions strategies. We've overseen thousands of students get into their top choice schools, from state colleges to the Ivy League. We know what kinds of students colleges want to admit. We want to get you admitted to your dream schools. Learn more about PrepScholar Admissions to maximize your chance of getting in.
Tuesday, February 18, 2020
CRJ 565 AL 6 - Essay Example Management allocates resources that are required to develop new products, and therefore it is important for it to be (DuBrin, pp.1-10). The students recommend that the management of Rapid Cash Store should review its business activities. In the recommendation, the student proposes that the store should diversify its operations and move away from the business of lending money. He cites the previous financial performance of the company indicates that the store is on the verge of collapsing. Although the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s suggestion is a noble idea, the decision can be made as a last resort. In a market where retailers are making a kill by offering discounts, all Sam has to do it to provide competitive interest rates. Sam has to reconsider the decision of offering high-interest rates. All he has to do is to reduce the interest rates and monitor the effect to the performance of the store (DuBrin, pp.330-340). The third students provide an interesting discussion on the importance of having strategic plans. The students suggest that Manchester Foods should have a clear mission and vision on what they intend to achieve in terms of new product development. Equally, like the first student Kim has a very noble idea. For any project to succeed, proper planning has to be made. Resources are in nature, and, therefore, appropriate mechanism has to be laid on how to utilize them and attain the desired results. Furthermore, the students encourage the firm to acquire other subsidiary businesses that are in the same industry but offer different products. In doing so, Manchester Foods could have succeeded in developing new products. In addition, the student proposes that the Manchester Foods should conduct a market research before developing a new product. A market will help the firm to establish the needs of customers so that they can be into the new product. Lastly, Riggans
Monday, February 3, 2020
Nissan - Essay Example These cars were developed first in the late 1960s and have continued to be modified to adapt to the changing the changing trends to date. On the other hand, there is the Nissan Patrol is a suburban utility vehicle (SUV) that was developed around 1951 to compete with car brands such as ToyotaÃ¢â¬â¢s Land Cruiser. This car has been advanced over the generations and currently it is in its sixth generation, which began in 2010. The Patrol occurs has a four-wheel drive and is available in either short-wheelbase with three doors or long-wheelbase with five door chassis. Both cars come in a variety of models that have continued to attract customers due to the continued development. The development of Nissan Skyline GT-R brand has a long history that is linked to the previous products developed by Nissan. Prince Automobile Company was the first company to use the word Ã¢â¬ËSkylineÃ¢â¬â¢- they developed sedan cars that fell on a line of Skyline products. However, after the merger with Nissan-Datsun, it adopted the Skyline series of cars. Skyline cars were developed with rear wheel drive, an aspect that continued to the 1990s when other manufacturers started focusing on shifting the drive to the front wheels. The adoption of the GT-R cars for racing purposes made them to have direct market while at other instances some of the versions such as the KPGC110 2000 GT-R made very little sales, a situation that was attributed to a looming energy crisis at the time. Just before the development of Nissan Skyline GT-R, there was the S54 2000 GT-B that was a powerful racecar at the time. The GT-R series saw the development of PGC10 2000 GT-R, which made very impressive wins over a period of almost two years. There were a number of racing victories that were associated with this particular car from 1964 to the time it was discontinued in 1972. The Nissan Motorsport (Nismo) has been on the forefront of developing this car to
Sunday, January 26, 2020
Economics Questions and Answers on Resources and Profit Assignment Questions: Question 1: The removal of imperfections in the market leads to an increase in efficiency in the allocation of resources. Discuss whether you agree with this view (25 marks) Question 2: Explain what is meant by normal and abnormal profit and when such profits might occur (12 marks) Discuss the three reasons as to why people demand money, according to the liquidity preference theory (13 marks) Table of Contents (Jump to) Question 1: A. Allocative Efficiency and Perfectly Competitive Market B. Allocative Efficiency and Monopoly Question 2 (a): A. Perfect Competition B. Monopoly C. Monopolistic Competition Question 2 (b) A. Transaction Motive B. Precautionary Motive C. Speculative Motive Referencing List of Figures (Jump to) Figure 1: Pure Competition MSC MSB Curves Figure 2: Consumer Surplus Producer Surplus Figure 3: The short run and long run in perfect competition Figure 4: The short run and long run monopoly market Figure 5: The short run and long run monopolistic competition Figure 6: Money Demand Curves (liquidity preference theory) Question 1: The removal of imperfections in the market leads to an increase in efficiency in the allocation of resources. Discuss whether you agree with this view (25 marks) A. Allocative Efficiency and Perfectly Competitive Market Allocative Efficiency occurs when it is not possible to reallocate resources in order to make someone better off without making at least another person worse off. It arises where: Marginal Social Cost (MSC) = Marginal Social Benefit (MSB). The MSC refers any extra cost to society of producing one more unit of output. The law of diminishing returns implies that MSC will be upward sloping. On the other hand, the MSB is any extra benefit to society of producing one more unit of output. The law of diminishing marginal utility implies that MSB will be downward sloping. For example: If the 20th unit of output is produced, then it costs the society $10, but yields a benefit of $20. Thus, the societyÃ¢â¬â¢s welfare increases by $10 (i.e. MSB Ã¢â¬â MSC). Since MSB is greater than MSC, people is better off. On the contrary, it is not in the societyÃ¢â¬â¢s interest to produce the 40th unit. In perfect competition, both consumer surplus and producer surplus is maximised (as illustrated by figure 1), where the price is equal to the marginal cost. The consumer surplus is the total net benefit enjoyed by all consumers buying the product. For instance, a consumer paying $20 for a product whose market price is $15; thus enjoying the benefit of $5 ($20 $15 = $5). Producer surplus is the difference between the market price the producer receives and the marginal cost of producing this unit. Demand curves measure the maximum price that consumers are willing to pay for a given quantity of a good. Hence, the demand curve is a measure of marginal benefit (or marginal utility) to the consumer. Therefore, in absence of externalities, MSB = D = P. In perfectly competitive market, the supply curve is a measure of the marginal cost in the industry. In the absence of externalities, MSC = S = MC. Therefore, an efficient allocation of resources under perfect competition happens when price equals to marginal cost, i.e. P = MC, in the short and long run. B. Allocative Efficiency and Monopoly Monopoly market structure is one of the major sources of market imperfections. A monopoly is having one firm producing and selling a product with the existence of barriers to entry. A monopolist is a price taker. The monopolist can set the price or the output, but not both. They can even earn abnormal profits at the expense of efficiency and welfare of consumer and society. Since price is higher than marginal cost, this will lead to a loss of allocative efficiency and a failure of the market. In fact, the monopolist is extracting a price from consumer that is higher than the cost of resources required. Thus, at price Pm, the monopolist is charging a higher price and restricting output to Qm, whereby capturing a portion of the consumer surplus. Under monopoly, there is a portion (triangle ABC) where both the consumer surplus and producer surplus are recovered. This is known as Ã¢â¬Å"deadweight lossÃ¢â¬ . Figure 2: Consumer Surplus Producer Surplus Imperfections in the market leads to misallocation and underutilisation of resources and reduction in consumer surplus since price is greater than marginal cost, i.e. P > MC. But imperfections in market do have some benefits such as: Monopolist are supplying products on a very large scale, thus they may be in a better place to exploit increasing returns to scale leading to a fall in average total costs of production. This reduction in costs will lead to an increase in monopoly profits, but some gains in productive efficiency may pass onto consumer in the form of lower prices. Earning abnormal profits in the long run may lead to faster rate of technological development thereby reducing costs and producing of better quality. Supernormal profits may be used to invest in research and development programmes that have the potential to bring dynamic efficiency gains to consumers in the markets. Question 2 (a): Explain what is meant by normal and abnormal profit and when such profits might occur? (12 marks) Normal profit is the minimum level of profit that a company needs to remain competitive in the market. If firms in an industry are making normal profit, then there is no reasons for them to leave or for other firms to join the industry. Normal profit occurs when revenue equals cost. Abnormal profit (or super normal profit) is profit in excess of normal profit. If firms in an industry are making abnormal profit, then there is a reason for other firms to join the industry if they can. Abnormal profit occurs when the revenue is greater than the costs. A. Perfect Competition In the short run, firms can make abnormal profits or losses, whereas they can only make normal profits in the long run, as illustrated below: Figure 3: The short run and long run in perfect competition B. Monopoly Monopolies can earn abnormal profits in the short run and in the long run due to the existence of strong barriers to entry. Figure 4: The short run and long run monopoly market C. Monopolistic Competition Monopolistic competition involves many sellers with differentiated products, e.g. shoe producers or restaurants. In the short run, firms can make abnormal profit whereas in the long run, other firms will be attracted by the abnormal profits causing firmsÃ¢â¬â¢ demand to fall until only normal profits are made. Figure 5: The short run and long run monopolistic competition As a conclusion, if firms are making abnormal profits, other firms will be attracted by such profit, and will try to enter that particular market to reap some of that profits. As a result, firms in perfectly competitive market and monopolistic competitive market will enjoy normal profit with the entrance of new firms in the long run. On the other hand, firms in monopoly market will enjoy abnormal profits both in the short run and in the long run due to the existence of strong barriers to entry. Question 2 (b) Discuss the three reasons as to why people demand money, according to the liquidity preference theory (13 marks) According to KeynesÃ¢â¬â¢ Liquidity Preference theory, people demand moneyand hold their wealth in monetary form because of the following three main reasons: A. Transaction Motive Day-to-day transactions are performed by both individuals and firms. An individual person holds cash in order to meet his/her daily expenditures. Business holds cash to meet its current needs such as payments of raw materials, etcÃ¢â¬ ¦ Therefore, we can say that money needed by consumers, businessmen and others, is known as the demand for money for transactions motive. This demand depends upon the following: Size of the income: If income is high, more will be available for daily transactions and vice versa. Time gap between receipts of income: If a person gets his pay daily, he/she will demand less cash and vice versa. Spending habit: If a person is spent a lot, he/she will do more transactions and thus will demand more money. B. Precautionary Motive Precautionary motive for holding money refers to the desire to hold cash for unforeseen contingencies such as illness, accidents, unemployment, etc Business keeps cash reserve to safeguard their future. This type of demand for liquidity is called demand for precautionary motive. This demand depends upon many factors: Size of the income: If a person earns a high income, he/she will demand more money for safeguarding his future. Nature of the person: Some persons are optimistic, i.e. they anticipate less of future risk and danger, and hence they will demand less money for precautionary motive. On the other hand, pessimistic persons foresee dangers, calamities, and emergencies in the future, and hence, they want to have more cash with them. Farsightedness: They are persons who can proper guess of the future, and thus they will keep more money (in cash) with then in case of more emergencies expectation and vice versa. C. Speculative Motive The speculative motive relates to the desire to hold cash and take advantage of future changes in the rate of interest or bond prices. For instance, if the price of bond is expected to rise, meaning the rate of interest is expected to fall, then people will buy bonds and sell later when the price rises, and vice versa. According to Keynes, Ã¢â¬Å"the higher the rate of interest, the lower the speculative demand for money and vice versaÃ¢â¬ . Figure 6: Money Demand Curves (liquidity preference theory) Keynes hold that the transaction and precautionary motives are completely interest inelastic, whereas the speculative demand for money is a smooth curve which slopes downward from left to right, as illustrated in above figure. 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T.ROMANA COLLEGE KeynesÃ¢â¬â¢ Liquidity Preference Theory of Interest [Online] Available from: http://www.trcollege.net/study-material/24-economics/40-keynes-liquidity-preference-theory-of-interest [Accessed: 17th March 2015] INVESTOPEDIA (2015) Liquidity Preference Theory [Online] Available from:Ã http://www.investopedia.com/terms/l/liquiditypreference.asp [Accessed: 17th March 2015] ECONOMICS ONLINE (2015) Money and Monetary theory [Online] Available from:Ã http://www.economicsonline.co.uk/Global_economics/Money_and_monetary_theory.html [Accessed: 17th March 2015] TUTORS2U.COM Liquidity Preference Theory [Online] Available from:Ã http://www.tutors2u.com/rte/File/Economics/LIQUIDITY PREFERENCE THEORY.pdf [Accessed: 17th March 2015] MOSCHANDREAS Maria (2000), Business Economics.Ã Cengage Learning EMEA HOAG, Arleen J. and HOAG John H. (2006) Introductory Economics [Online]Ã World Scientific. Available from: https://books.google.mu/books?id=-2AcaoqC-28Cdq=efficient+allocation+of+resources+in+perfect+competition+market+and+monopolysource=gbs_navlinks_sÃ [Accessed: 1st April 2015] SEXTON Robert (2015) Exploring Economics [Online] 7th Ed.Ã Cengage Learning. Available from: https://books.google.mu/books?id=YDdBBAAAQBAJdq=efficient+allocation+of+resources+in+perfect+marketsource=gbs_navlinks_sÃ [Accessed: 1st April 2015] MANKIW N. (2014) Principles of Economics [Online] 7th Ed.Ã Cengage Learning. Available from: https://books.google.mu/books?id=K-jKAgAAQBAJdq=efficient+allocation+of+resources+in+perfect+marketsource=gbs_navlinks_s [Accessed: 1st April 2015] BAUMOL W. and BLINDER A. (2015) Microeconomics: Principles and Policy [Online] 13th Ed. Cengage Learning. Available from: https://books.google.mu/books?id=XwW0BAAAQBAJdq=efficient+allocation+of+resources+in+monopolysource=gbs_navlinks_sÃ [Accessed: 1st April 2015] TUTORS ON NET (2007-2014) Resource Allocation under Monopoly [Online]. Available from: http://www.tutorsonnet.com/monopoly-resource-allocation-homework-help.phpÃ [Accessed: 1st April 2015] BYU IDAHO Economic Principles and Problems Ã¢â¬â Micro [Online]Ã Available from: https://courses.byui.edu/econ_150/econ_150_old_site/lesson_08.htmÃ [Accessed: 1st April 2015] KIRZNER Israel M. (2007) Market Theory and the Price System [Online]Ã Ludwig von Mises Institute. Available from: https://books.google.mu/books?id=h68AKS010W0Cdq=efficient+allocation+of+resources+in+monopolysource=gbs_navlinks_s [Accessed: 1st April 2015] OHRI VK and JAIN TR, Principles of Microeconomics [Online]Ã FK Publications. Available from: https://books.google.mu/books?id=geSOZshzNt0Cdq=efficient+allocation+of+resources+in+perfect+competition+market+and+monopolysource=gbs_navlinks_sÃ [Accessed: 1st April 2015] LIPSEY Richard G. and HARBURY Colin (1992) First Principles of Economics [Online]Ã Oxford University Press. Available from: https://books.google.mu/books?id=cV0EZuJxod8Cdq=efficient+allocation+of+resources+in+perfect+competition+market+and+monopolysource=gbs_navlinks_sÃ [Accessed: 1st April 2015]Ã MISSOURISTATE.EDU Monopoly and Perfect Competition Compared [Online] Available from: http://courses.missouristate.edu/ReedOlsen/courses/eco165/Notes/pc-m.htmÃ [Accessed: 1st April 2015] ECONOMICS.HELP (2012) Diagram of Monopoly [Online] Available from: http://www.economicshelp.org/microessays/markets/monopoly-diagram/Ã [Accessed: 2nd April 2015] TUTOR2U Potential benefits from monopoly [Online] Available from: http://www.tutor2u.net/economics/content/topics/monopoly/benefits_of_monopoly.htmÃ [Accessed: 2nd April 2015] ECONOMICS.HELP (2012) Advantages of Monopoly [Online] Available from: http://www.economicshelp.org/microessays/markets/advantages-monopoly/Ã [Accessed: 2nd April 2015] TUTOR2U (2004) Perfect Competition [Online] Available from: http://www.tutor2u.net/economics/revision_focus_2004/A2_Perfect_Competition.pdfÃ [Accessed: 2nd April 2015] TRIPLE A LEARNING Efficient Allocation of resources [Online] Available from: http://www.sanandres.esc.edu.ar/secondary/economics packs/microeconomics/page_117.htm [Accessed: 2nd April 2015] TUTOR2U (2012) Perfect Competition Ã¢â¬â Economics of Competitive Markets [Online] Available from: http://tutor2u.net/economics/revision-notes/a2-micro-perfect-competition.html [Accessed: 2nd April 2015] TUTOR2U (2012) Monopoly Economic Efficiency [Online] Available from: http://www.tutor2u.net/economics/revision-notes/a2-micro-monopoly-economic-efficiency.html [Accessed: 2nd April 2015] YOUR ARTICLE LIBRARY.COM (2015) Resource Allocation: itÃ¢â¬â¢s Meaning, Monopolistic, Oligopoly Competition and Resource Allocation [Online]. Available from: http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/economics/resource-allocation-its-meaning-monopolistic-oligopoly-competition-and-resource-allocation/28945/ [Accessed: 2nd April 2015] YOUR ARTICLE LIBRARY.COM (2015) The Demand for Money: The Classical and the Keynesian Approach Towards Money [Online]. Available from: http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/economics/money/the-demand-for-money-the-classical-and-the-keynesian-approach-towards-money/10987/ [Accessed: 2nd April 2015] EXPERTSMIND.COM (2012) Keynes Interest Theory [Online] Available from: http://blog.expertsmind.com/2012/03/ [Accessed: 2nd April 2015]
Saturday, January 18, 2020
In light of a lot of controversial issues over education matters, different people take different sides and give out individual opinions. There is a common belief that good education would provide a country with a lot of benefits such as more promising economic growth and higher living standards. As the global economic recession is taken more seriously, more and more people are now turning their attention to education in America, the most powerful country in the world, asking whether it will be still up to its name in the future and what kind of improvement to education can make contribution to the social economy. In addition, media also gives data on AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s stagnant education outcome. In a study released in September 2009, what stands out is that U.S. students scored the lowest in Math and Science, with a Math result Ã¢â¬Å"in the bottom quarter of all the countries that participated, including Finland, China and EstoniaÃ¢â¬ (Lattimore). As well, Secretary of Education Arne Duncan claimed that students are going to struggle in the global market competition without intellectual growth. Thus, education issues become outstanding among all the challenges people are going to meet in the recent future. Since secondary education plays a fundamental and transitional role in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s whole education journey, here are examinations of important factors in the current U.S. public high school system that cause its education quality to decline. Students are not being helped by tests because standards are not rigorous in American high schools. According to Dr. Kristy Vernille, an expert in Mathematics Curriculum and Instruction, American students usually move from grade to grade easily and Ã¢â¬Å"without having to demonstrate competency in any subject matterÃ¢â¬ , as a result of the loose and vague test standards in America (Vernille 5). Although American students are often asked to take a lot of standardized tests, based on the American Federation of Teachers, the tests results of students usually do not influence their progress through the system. Furthermore, state and commercial tests have lower degree of difficulty and focus on less-advanced problem solving than the international tests; at the same time, international tests include more open-response items (in which students have to show how they solve the problems), whereas Ã¢â¬Å"the United States tests are predominantly multiple-choice items with little intellectual demand associated with determining the answerÃ¢â¬ (AFT 15). Under these circumstances, U.S. students are not motivated for further study or higher academic accomplishment, resulting in their lower competency than their international peers. However, establishing more rigorous test standards in the U.S. public school system will improve American studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ academic performance. To demonstrate, in China, there is a highly standardized test named Ã¢â¬Å"the National College Entrance ExaminationÃ¢â¬ . It also appeared in Time magazine as the Ã¢â¬Å"most pressure packed examination in the worldÃ¢â¬ (Siegel). The Entrance Examination is held for the sake of selecting students for higher education and leadership, and is taken by every Chinese twelfth grader every year. In every state, schools are informed what to teach students and what will probably appear in the exam (Schaack 5). During the preparation for the exam, students have to receive an extremely large amount of information from teachers and finally implement it into the Entrance Exam. Those who perform extraordinarily well are admitted to the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s top universities; Ã¢â¬Å"the rest find spots in provincial universities or two- and three-year coll egesÃ¢â¬ (Siegel). Due to the fact that Chinese students are under such kind of pressure, they are more likely to learn things in order to be competitive and prepared for their future. To a large degree, their academic achievement is related to their educational policies and environment. They donÃ¢â¬â¢t have many alternatives in their testing system, which is considered to be fair and standardized. This method can be adopted by American public school system to reduce their test alternatives, in other words, to make a standard in the testing system. With a more clear and rigorous standard, American students are going to have better understanding of what teachers convey and what skills they are supposed to pick up. Thus, academic improvement will subsequently be fostered. Besides the lack of a rigorous testing standard, American schools set up their curriculums based on the education policy approved by law, resulting in negative consequences. Since the No Child Left Behind program was signed into law in 2002, test scores have become the most basic measure of school quality (Ravitch 15). Schools then had to modify the curriculums to enhance their test scores in order not to lose students. How does education make sense when the purpose of testing goes beyond the substance of learning? Diane Ravitch, a historian of education and educational policy analyst, writes this program Ã¢â¬Å"demanded that schools generate higher test scores Ã¢â¬ ¦ It ignored such important studies as history, civics, literature, science, the arts, and geography. Though the law required states to test students eventually in science, the science scores didnÃ¢â¬â¢t count on the federal scorecardÃ¢â¬ (Ravitch 16). She watched her hope for better education fall though she was initially supportive of the so-called education reform. Under this circumstance, coupled with the contemporary, vague, unchallenging test standard, schools are rather unlikely to have curriculums that can help students develop fully or help them attain high scores in those more advanced and comprehensive international tests. To illustrate, data collected by NCES (National Center for Education Statistics) shows that U.S. students perform the worst in areas like Math and Science. Especially in Math, U.S. high school students scored much lower than other countries that participated (Lattimore). Nevertheless, the situation can be changed if the whole school system revises the curriculums for the sake of studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ better development, which is the original intention of education. After that, tests should be based on the curriculums that schools are providing. How is it possible for students to achieve good grades while the test does not at all correspond to the courses they are taking? Although many people believe that the freedom of teaching and the freedom of learning are both significant, experts claim that a well-educated person has a well-furnished mind, Ã¢â¬Å"shaped by reading and thinking about history, science, literature, the arts, and politicsÃ¢â¬ , and is armed with knowledge and skills that help him read, listen and also explain (Ravitch 16). Without basic knowledge and skills, people are unable to think critically, to debate or to question, let alone able to solve problems in tests or in their real lives. The continuous education reforms really expose th e effort that America is always trying to make for its nation. Nonetheless, paying too much attention to testing other than curriculum will only lead to a blow up of its previous efforts. Moreover, school resources, computer technology especially, are not being used effectively by teachers and students, causing a reduction in school productivity. It is now in the midst of the information age when technology use is widely spread. Although the goal of President Bill Clinton, Ã¢â¬Å"a computer in every classroomÃ¢â¬ , has practically been realized by American public schools and Ã¢â¬Å"the number of computers in U.S. schools has grown dramaticallyÃ¢â¬ (Evans 272), a research conducted by Harvard University economist Caroline Hoxby has shown that the productivity (the ratio of student performance to spending) has not increased as expected. Instead, it is declining (Woessmann 73). Originally, schools hope that technology can help students achieve better academic performance, instead of being a distraction for students. Hence, as can be seen in most schools, there are a lot of unwritten rules for students banning them from using electronic devices during class. But many students still behave as usual, making technology a destraction of class environment. For this reason, American schools are confused about whether their students are the beneficiaries or victims of this new age (Evans 272). Since it is a technological time, why not take good advantage of it? There are still many students in developing countries dreaming of this advantage that American students experience. And it definitely cannot be wasted. If students were guided to make good use of school resources, the teaching pace and quality would increase; homework assignments would receive more positive feedback; the testing burden would be lighter. Accordingly, the whole nationÃ¢â¬â¢s students would do much better academically. In addition to the hardware and software resources not being used well, adults are not paying enough attention to American students. During a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s academic journey, adults around him can have a substantial influence on him. In particular, parental involvement has a considerably critical impact on their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s education experience. If a childÃ¢â¬â¢s parents attach great importance to education, then the child would also tend to value their school work (Schaack 10). Again, to demonstrate using Chinese parents as an example, most of the time, they supervise their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior in school by attending parent-teacher conferences periodically, learning about their grades, discussing school programs and activities with their children, monitoring their homework and so on. They also provide private tutoring, paying private teachers, when their children are not performing as well as others or when they need to pass some specific tests and examinations. Some of the Chinese parents even consider their training to be high enough to teach their children while most American parents seem Ã¢â¬Å"less sure as to how much they could helpÃ¢â¬ with childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s school work (Hunt and Hu 134). As a part of culture, Chinese students are motivated intensely by their parents to succeed in school from the time when they are young (Ho and Willims 136). In comparison, American parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ involvement in their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s education differs from area to area. During an interview with a Chinese student in Hillsdale High School, Yixi Wu, who left his country at the age of 15 and immigrated into America, he said that he could tell that American parents provide their children with more freedom when it comes to school matters. They care more about their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s overall life pattern and everyday skills rather than pay too much attention on their academic achievement (Cannon and Ginsburg 122). However, parental involvement can substantially influence a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s academic performance. To prove, statistics collected by Professor Esther Ho Sui-Chu from University of British suggest that Ã¢â¬Å"the most important parental-involvement factor at the individual level is Home Discussion. The estimated effect is approximately 12 percent of a standard deviation on both mathematics and reading achievement. This finding implies that an increase of 1 standard deviation in Home Discussion is associated with an increase in achievement of 0.12 of a standard deviationÃ¢â¬ (Ho and Willims 136). The result of this study really emphasizes the significant influence of parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ facilitation on childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s academic success. Since cultures in Asian countries like China and Western countries like America are different, children in America manage to have more freedom in school life and academic matters. Consequently, their learning outcome compared to China is relatively lower. But if American parents pay more attention to their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s school experience, more positive attitudes towards academic behavior will probably be fostered; homework assignment will have better quality; learning outcome will be more outstanding and dropout rates will definitely go down. Besides parents, teachers also have great academic influence on students and their impacts are more direct. Superficially, some people would consider that it was because in some countries teachers were too strict that students did not dare to obey them. This common recognition makes sense to some extent but is not exactly true. Obviously and overall, students are going to attain higher achievement if teachers pay more attention to them and give them corresponding advice on the difficulties they meet at school. As mentioned above, Chinese teachers have their own technique dealing with this issue. Usually, a Chinese teacher is going to ask a student to come to the board to solve a problem with everybody else watching him. If he is not able to have it done, others will try hard to help him deal with it so that no one will extremely lag behind. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s more, if he still has difficulty figuring it out, teachers will ask him to go to his office after class and provide extra individua l tutoring. Ã¢â¬Å"In Contrast, in America, being called in front of a class and being critiqued by not only your teacher, but also by other peers, could be downright damaging to a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s psycheÃ¢â¬ (Schaack 7). In this case, subsequently, students can only ask for help after class during teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ office hours, which are rather limited. What if one does not realize where his current position is compared to the others? What if he does not know what he misunderstands right after he gets confused? He will probably accumulate his misunderstanding and eventually lag far behind. Therefore, as the old saying goes Ã¢â¬Å"every coin has two sidesÃ¢â¬ . In exchange for maintaining studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ self-esteem, American education has to lose some of its points in the international competition. Yet if the American schools were to learn from Chinese schools in this aspect, making the classroom environment to be more challenging and teacher-controlled, students are going to be more comp etitive and will achieve much better academically. Admittedly, there are still problems waiting to be fixed in AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s education system even if it has always been receiving a good reputation worldwide. With more rigorous test standards, students would have a better sense of direction in their education journey; with curriculums to be more comprehensive, students would be equipped with better skills for life and career; with more efficient use of resources, students would be able to release much of their pressure and make studying fun; and with the help from parents and teachers, students would probably be more motivated for further study and self-development. Fixing the defects in the U.S. education system and adopting advantages from other countries like China will awaken studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ potential, thereby improving the whole nationÃ¢â¬â¢s academic achievement, finally consolidating its title of the most powerful country in the world. Those who suit their actions to the time are wise. Hence, corresponding changes in educ ation turn out to be necessary for America to succeed in its self-progress as well as in the aggressive global competition. Work Cited American Federation of Teachers. Ã¢â¬Å"Setting higher sights: A need for more demanding assessments for U.S. eighth graders.Ã¢â¬ Washington, DC: American Federation of Teachers. July, 1998. Web. May, 2012. Cannon, J. and H. P. Ginsburg. Ã¢â¬Å"Doing the math: Maternal beliefs about early mathÃ ¬ematics versus language learning.Ã¢â¬ Early Education and Development. 2008. Web. May, 2012. Evans, Dennis L. Taking sides: Clashing views on controversial issues in secondary education. University of California, Irvine. 2002. Print. Ho Sui-Chu, Esther and J. Douglas Willims. Ã¢â¬Å"Effects of Parental Involvement on Eighth-Grade Achievement.Ã¢â¬ Sociology of Education. (April, 1996):126-141. Web. May, 2012. Hunt, Jessica H. and Bi Ying Hu. Ã¢â¬Å"Theoretical Factors Affecting Parental Roles in ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Mathematical Learning in American and Chinese-Born Mothers.Ã¢â¬ The School Community Journal. 2011. Web. May, 2012. Lattimore, K. Ã¢â¬Å"Students in U.S. Falling Behind i n Math and Science.Ã¢â¬ 8 September, 2009. Web. May, 2012. Ravitch, Diane. The Death and Life of the Great American School System: How testing and Choice Are Undermining Education. New York. Basic Book, 2010. Print. Schaack, Tara L. Van. Ã¢â¬Å"Comparing U.S. and Chinese Public School Systems.Ã¢â¬ University of Michigan. n.d. Web. May, 2012. Siegel, Benjemin. Ã¢â¬Å"Stressful Times for Chinese Students.Ã¢â¬ TIME. 12 June, 2007. Web. May, 2012. Vernille, Kristy. Ã¢â¬Å"Why Are U.S. Mathematics Students Falling Behind Their International Peers?Ã¢â¬ University of Maryland. n.d. Web. May, 2012. Woessmann, Ludger. Ã¢â¬Å"Why Students in Some Countries Do Better: International evidence on the importance of education policy.Ã¢â¬ Education Matters. 2001. Web. May, 2012.
Friday, January 10, 2020
FALLACIES OF RELEVANCE 1. Appeal to Force If you suppose that terrorizing your opponent is giving him a reason for believing that you are correct, then you are using a scare tactic and reasoning fallaciously. Example: David: My father owns the department store that gives your newspaper fifteen percent of all its advertising revenue, so IÃ¢â¬â¢m sure you wonÃ¢â¬â¢t want to publish any story of my arrest for spray painting the college. Newspaper editor: Yes, David, I see your point. The story really isnÃ¢â¬â¢t newsworthy.David has given the editor a financial reason not to publish, but he has not given a relevant reason why the story is not newsworthy. DavidÃ¢â¬â¢s tactics are scaring the editor, but itÃ¢â¬â¢s the editor who commits the scare tactic fallacy, not David. David has merely used a scare tactic. This fallacyÃ¢â¬â¢s name emphasizes the cause of the fallacy rather than the error itself. 2. Appeal to Pity You commit the fallacy of appeal to emotions when someoneÃ¢â ¬â¢s appeal to you to accept their claim is accepted merely because the appeal arouses your feelings of anger, fear, grief, love, outrage, pity, pride, sexuality, sympathy, relief, and so forth.Example of appeal to relief from grief: [The speaker knows he is talking to an aggrieved person whose house is worth much more than $100,000. ] You had a great job and didnÃ¢â¬â¢t deserve to lose it. I wish I could help somehow. I do have one idea. Now your family needs financial security even more. You need cash. I can help you. Here is a check for $100,000. Just sign this standard sales agreement, and we can skip the realtors and all the headaches they would create at this critical time in your life.There is nothing wrong with using emotions when you argue, but itÃ¢â¬â¢s a mistake to use emotions as the key premises or as tools to downplay relevant information. Regarding the fallacy ofÃ appeal to pity, it is proper to pity people who have had misfortunes, but if as the personÃ¢â¬â¢ s history instructor you accept MaxÃ¢â¬â¢s claim that he earned an A on the history quiz because he broke his wrist while playing in your collegeÃ¢â¬â¢s last basketball game, then youÃ¢â¬â¢ve committed the fallacy ofÃ appeal to pity. *Appeal to Snobbery 3. Ad HominemYou commit this fallacy if you make an irrelevant attack on the arguer and suggest that this attack undermines the argument itself. It is a form of theÃ Genetic Fallacy. Example: What she says about Johannes KeplerÃ¢â¬â¢s astronomy of the 1600? s must be just so much garbage. Do you realize sheÃ¢â¬â¢s only fourteen years old? This attack may undermine the arguerÃ¢â¬â¢s credibility as a scientific authority, but it does not undermine her reasoning. That reasoning should stand or fall on the scientific evidence, not on the arguerÃ¢â¬â¢s age or anything else about her personally.If the fallacious reasoner points out irrelevant circumstances that the reasoner is in, the fallacy is a circumstantial ad homine m. Tu QuoqueÃ andÃ Two Wrongs Make a RightÃ are other types of the ad hominem fallacy. The major difficulty with labeling a piece of reasoning as an ad hominem fallacy is deciding whether the personal attack is relevant. For example, attacks on a person for their actually immoral sexual conduct are irrelevant to the quality of their mathematical reasoning, but they are relevant to arguments promoting the person for a leadership position in the church.Unfortunately, many attacks are not so easy to classify, such as an attack pointing out that the candidate for church leadership, while in the tenth grade, intentionally tripped a fellow student and broke his collar bone. *Ad Hominem Circumstantial Guilt by association is a version of theÃ ad hominemÃ fallacy in which a person is said to be guilty of error because of the group he or she associates with. The fallacy occurs when we unfairly try to change the issue to be about the speakerÃ¢â¬â¢s circumstances rather than about the speakerÃ¢â¬â¢s actual argument. Also called Ã¢â¬Å"Ad Hominem, Circumstantial. Example: Secretary of State Dean Acheson is too soft on communism, as you can see by his inviting so many fuzzy-headed liberals to his White House cocktail parties. Has any evidence been presented here that AchesonÃ¢â¬â¢s actions are inappropriate in regards to communism? This sort of reasoning is an example of McCarthyism, the technique of smearing liberal Democrats that was so effectively used by the late Senator Joe McCarthy in the early 1950s. In fact, Acheson was strongly anti-communist and the architect of President TrumanÃ¢â¬â¢s firm policy of containing Soviet power. 4. Appeal to the PeopleIf you suggest too strongly that someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s claim or argument is correct simply because itÃ¢â¬â¢s what most everyone believes, then youÃ¢â¬â¢ve committed the fallacy of appeal to the people. Similarly, if you suggest too strongly that someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s claim or argument is mistaken simply beca use itÃ¢â¬â¢s not what most everyone believes, then youÃ¢â¬â¢ve also committed the fallacy. Agreement with popular opinion is not necessarily a reliable sign of truth, and deviation from popular opinion is not necessarily a reliable sign of error, but if you assume it is and do so with enthusiasm, then youÃ¢â¬â¢re guilty of committing this fallacy.It is essentially the same as the fallacies of ad numerum, appeal to the gallery, appeal to the masses, argument from popularity, argumentum ad populum, common practice, mob appeal, past practice, peer pressure, traditional wisdom. The Ã¢â¬Å"too stronglyÃ¢â¬ mentioned above is important in the description of the fallacy because what most everyone believes is, for that reason, somewhat likely to be true, all things considered. However, the fallacy occurs when this degree of support is overestimated. Example: You should turn to channel 6. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s the most watched channel this year.This is fallacious because of its implicitly ac cepting the questionable premise that the most watched channel this year is, for that reason alone, the best channel for you. If you stress the idea of appealing to aÃ newÃ idea of the gallery, masses, mob, peers, people, and so forth, then it is a bandwagon fallacy. *Bandwagon If you suggest that someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s claim is correct simply because itÃ¢â¬â¢s what most everyone is coming to believe, then youÃ¢â¬â¢re committing the bandwagon fallacy. Get up here with us on the wagon where the band is playing, and go where we go, and donÃ¢â¬â¢t think too much about the reasons.The Latin term for this fallacy of appeal to novelty is Argumentum ad Novitatem. Example: [Advertisement] More and more people are buying sports utility vehicles. IsnÃ¢â¬â¢t it time you bought one, too? [You commit the fallacy if you buy the vehicle solely because of this advertisement. ] Like its close cousin, the fallacy of appeal to the people, the bandwagon fallacy needs to be carefully distinguished from properly defending a claim by pointing out that many people have studied the claim and have come to a reasoned conclusion that it is correct.What most everyone believes is likely to be true, all things considered, and if one defends a claim on those grounds, this is not a fallacious inference. What is fallacious is to be swept up by the excitement of a new idea or new fad and to unquestionably give it too high a degree of your belief solely on the grounds of its new popularity, perhaps thinking simply that Ã¢â¬Ënew is better. Ã¢â¬â¢ The key ingredient that is missing from a bandwagon fallacy is knowledge that an item is popular because of its high quality. Appeal to Past People (Ã¢â¬Å"You tooÃ¢â¬ ) 5. Accident We often arrive at a generalization but donÃ¢â¬â¢t or canÃ¢â¬â¢t list all the exceptions. When we reason with the generalization as if it has no exceptions, we commit the fallacy of accident. This fallacy is sometimes called the Ã¢â¬Å"fallacy of sweeping gene ralization. Ã¢â¬ Example: People should keep their promises, right? I loaned Dwayne my knife, and he said heÃ¢â¬â¢d return it. Now he is refusing to give it back, but I need it right now to slash up my neighbors who disrespected me.People should keep their promises, but there are exceptions to this generaliztion as in this case of the psychopath who wants Dwayne to keep his promise to return the knife. 6. Straw Man You commit the straw man fallacy whenever you attribute an easily refuted position to your opponent, one that the opponent wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t endorse, and then proceed to attack the easily refuted position (the straw man) believing you have undermined the opponentÃ¢â¬â¢s actual position. If the misrepresentation is on purpose, then the straw man fallacy is caused by lying.Example (a debate before the city council): Opponent: Because of the killing and suffering of Indians that followed ColumbusÃ¢â¬â¢s discovery of America, the City of Berkeley should declare that Co lumbus Day will no longer be observed in our city. Speaker: This is ridiculous, fellow members of the city council. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not true that everybody who ever came to America from another country somehow oppressed the Indians. I say we should continue to observe Columbus Day, and vote down this resolution that will make the City of Berkeley the laughing stock of the nation.The speaker has twisted what his opponent said; the opponent never said, nor even indirectly suggested, that everybody who ever came to America from another country somehow oppressed the Indians. The critical thinker will respond to the fallacy by saying, Ã¢â¬Å"LetÃ¢â¬â¢s get back to the original issue of whether we have a good reason to discontinue observing Columbus Day. Ã¢â¬ 7. Missing the Point The conclusion that is drawn is irrelevant to the premises; it misses the point. Example: In court, Thompson testifies that the defendant is a honorable person, who wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t harm a flea.The defense attorn ey commits the fallacy by rising to say that ThompsonÃ¢â¬â¢s testimony shows once again that his client was not near the murder scene. The testimony of Thompson may be relevant to a request for leniency, but it is irrelevant to any claim about the defendant not being near the murder scene. 8. Red Herring A red herring is a smelly fish that would distract even a bloodhound. It is also a digression that leads the reasoner off the track of considering only relevant information. Example: Will the new tax in Senate Bill 47 unfairly hurt business?One of the provisions of the bill is that the tax is higher for large employers (fifty or more employees) as opposed to small employers (six to forty-nine employees). To decide on the fairness of the bill, we must first determine whether employees who work for large employers have better working conditions than employees who work for small employers. Bringing up the issue of working conditions is the red herring. FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION 9. Beg ging the Question A form ofÃ circular reasoningÃ in which a conclusion is derived from premises that presuppose the conclusion.Normally, the point of good reasoning is to start out at one place and end up somewhere new, namely having reached the goal of increasing the degree of reasonable belief in the conclusion. The point is to make progress, but in cases of begging the question there is no progress. Example: Ã¢â¬Å"Women have rights,Ã¢â¬ said the Bullfighters Association president. Ã¢â¬Å"But women shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t fight bulls because a bullfighter is and should be a man. Ã¢â¬ The president is saying basically that women shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t fight bulls because women shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t fight bulls. This reasoning isnÃ¢â¬â¢t making any progress.Insofar as the conclusion of a deductively valid argument is Ã¢â¬Å"containedÃ¢â¬ in the premises from which it is deduced, this containing might seem to be a case of presupposing, and thus any deductively valid argument might seem to be begging the question. It is still an open question among logicians as to why some deductively valid arguments are considered to be begging the question and others are not. Some logicians suggest that, in informal reasoning with a deductively valid argument, if the conclusion is psychologically new insofar as the premises are concerned, then the argument isnÃ¢â¬â¢t an example of the fallacy.Other logicians suggest that we need to look instead to surrounding circumstances, not to the psychology of the reasoner, in order to assess the quality of the argument. For example, we need to look to the reasons that the reasoner used to accept the premises. Was the premise justified on the basis of accepting the conclusion? A third group of logicians say that, in deciding whether the fallacy is committed, we need more. We must determine whether any premise that is key to deducing the conclusion is adopted rather blindly or instead is a reasonable assumption made by someone accepting th eir burden of proof.The premise would here be termed reasonable if the arguer could defend it independently of accepting the conclusion that is at issue. 10. Complex Question You commit this fallacy when you frame a question so that some controversial presupposition is made by the wording of the question. Example: [Reporter's question] Mr. President: Are you going to continue your policy of wasting taxpayerÃ¢â¬â¢s money on missile defense? The question unfairly presumes the controversial claim that the policy really is a waste of money. The fallacy of complex question is a form of begging the question. 11. False DichotomyA reasoner who unfairly presents too few choices and then implies that a choice must be made among this short menu of choices commits the false dilemma fallacy, as does the person who accepts this faulty reasoning. Example: I want to go to Scotland from London. I overheard McTaggart say there are two roads to Scotland from London: the high road and the low road. I expect the high road would be too risky because itÃ¢â¬â¢s through the hills and that means dangerous curves. But itÃ¢â¬â¢s raining now, so both roads are probably slippery. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t like either choice, but I guess I should take the low road and be safer.This would be fine reasoning is you were limited to only two roads, but youÃ¢â¬â¢ve falsely gotten yourself into a dilemma with such reasoning. There are many other ways to get to Scotland. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t limit yourself to these two choices. You can take other roads, or go by boat or train or airplane. The fallacy is called the Ã¢â¬Å"False Dichotomy FallacyÃ¢â¬ when the unfair menu contains only two choices. Think of the unpleasant choice between the two as being a charging bull. By demanding other choices beyond those on the unfairly limited menu, you thereby Ã¢â¬Å"go between the hornsÃ¢â¬ of the dilemma, and are not gored. 12. Suppressed EvidenceIntentionally failing to use information suspected of being relevant and significant is committing the fallacy of suppressed evidence. This fallacy usually occurs when the information counts against oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own conclusion. Perhaps the arguer is not mentioning that experts have recently objected to one of his premises. The fallacy is a kind of fallacy ofÃ Selective Attention. Example: Buying the Cray Mac 11 computer for our company was the right thing to do. It meets our companyÃ¢â¬â¢s needs; it runs the programs we want it to run; it will be delivered quickly; and it costs much less than what we had budgeted.This appears to be a good argument, but youÃ¢â¬â¢d change your assessment of the argument if you learned the speaker has intentionally suppressed the relevant evidence that the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s Cray Mac 11 was purchased from his brother-in-law at a 30 percent higher price than it could have been purchased elsewhere, and if you learned that a recent unbiased analysis of ten comparable computers placed the Cray Mac 11 near the bottom of the list. FALLACIES OF WEAK INDUCTION 13. Appeal to Ignorance The fallacy of appeal to ignorance comes in two forms: (1) Not knowing that a certain statement is true is taken to be a proof that it is false. 2) Not knowing that a statement is false is taken to be a proof that it is true. The fallacy occurs in cases where absence of evidence is not good enough evidence of absence. The fallacy uses an unjustified attempt to shift the burden of proof. The fallacy is also called Ã¢â¬Å"Argument from Ignorance. Ã¢â¬ Example: Nobody has ever proved to me thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a God, so I know there is no God. This kind of reasoning is generally fallacious. It would be proper reasoning only if the proof attempts were quite thorough, and it were the case that if God did exist, then there would be a discoverable proof of this.Another common example of the fallacy involves ignorance of a future event: People have been complaining about the danger of Xs ever since they were invented, but thereÃ¢â ¬â¢s never been any big problem with them, so thereÃ¢â¬â¢s nothing to worry about. 14. Appeal to Unqualified Authority You appeal to authority if you back up your reasoning by saying that it is supported by what some authority says on the subject. Most reasoning of this kind is not fallacious, and much of our knowledge properly comes from listening to authorities.However, appealing to authority as a reason to believe somethingÃ isÃ fallacious whenever the authority appealed to is not really an authority in this particular subject, when the authority cannot be trusted to tell the truth, when authorities disagree on this subject (except for the occasional lone wolf), when the reasoner misquotes the authority, and so forth. Although spotting a fallacious appeal to authority often requires some background knowledge about the subject or the authority, in brief it can be said that it is fallacious to accept the words of a supposed authority when we should be suspicious of the autho rityÃ¢â¬â¢s words.Example: The moon is covered with dust because the president of our neighborhood association said so. This is a fallacious appeal to authority because, although the president is an authority on many neighborhood matters, you are given no reason to believe the president is an authority on the composition of the moon. It would be better to appeal to some astronomer or geologist. A TV commercial that gives you a testimonial from a famous film star who wears a Wilson watch and that suggests you, too, should wear that brand of watch is committing a fallacious appeal to authority.The film star is an authority on how to act, not on which watch is best for you. 15. Hasty Generalization A hasty generalization is a fallacy ofÃ jumping to conclusionsÃ in which the conclusion is a generalization. See alsoÃ Biased Statistics. Example: IÃ¢â¬â¢ve met two people in Nicaragua so far, and they were both nice to me. So, all people I will meet in Nicaragua will be nice to me . In any hasty generalization the key error is to overestimate the strength of an argument that is based on too small a sample for the implied confidence level or error margin.In this argument about Nicaragua, using the word Ã¢â¬Å"allÃ¢â¬ in the conclusion implies zero error margin. With zero error margin youÃ¢â¬â¢d need to sample every single person in Nicaragua, not just two people. 16. False Cause Improperly concluding that one thing is a cause of another. The Fallacy of Non Causa Pro Causa is another name for this fallacy. Its four principal kinds are theÃ Post Hoc Fallacy, the Fallacy ofÃ Cum Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc,Ã theÃ RegressionÃ Fallacy, and the Fallacy ofÃ Reversing Causation. Example: My psychic adviser says to expect bad things when Mars is aligned with Jupiter. Tomorrow Mars will be aligned with Jupiter.So, if a dog were to bite me tomorrow, it would be because of the alignment of Mars with Jupiter. 17. Slippery Slope Suppose someone claims that a firs t step (in a chain of causes and effects, or a chain of reasoning) will probably lead to a second step that in turn will probably lead to another step and so on until a final step ends in trouble. If the likelihood of the trouble occurring is exaggerated, the slippery slope fallacy is committed. Example: Mom: Those look like bags under your eyes. Are you getting enough sleep? Jeff: I had a test and stayed up late studying. Mom: You didnÃ¢â¬â¢t take any drugs, did you?Jeff: Just caffeine in my coffee, like I always do. Mom: Jeff! You know what happens when people take drugs! Pretty soon the caffeine wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be strong enough. Then you will take something stronger, maybe someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s diet pill. Then, something even stronger. Eventually, you will be doing cocaine. Then you will be a crack addict! So, donÃ¢â¬â¢t drink that coffee. The form of a slippery slope fallacy looks like this: A leads to B. B leads to C. C leads to D. Ã¢â¬ ¦ Z leads to HELL. We donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to g o to HELL. So, donÃ¢â¬â¢t take that first step A. 18. Weak Analogy The problem is that the items in the analogy are too dissimilar.When reasoning by analogy, the fallacy occurs when the analogy is irrelevant or very weak or when there is a more relevant disanalogy. See alsoÃ Faulty Comparison. Example: The bookÃ Investing for DummiesÃ really helped me understand my finances better. The bookChess for DummiesÃ was written by the same author, was published by the same press, and costs about the same amount. So, this chess book would probably help me understand my finances, too. FALLACIES OF AMBIGUITY 19. Accent The accent fallacy is a fallacy of ambiguity due to the different ways a word is emphasized or accented.Example: A member of Congress is asked by a reporter if she is in favor of the PresidentÃ¢â¬â¢s new missile defense system, and she responds, Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m in favor of a missile defense system that effectively defends America. Ã¢â¬ With an emphasis on the wo rd Ã¢â¬Å"favor,Ã¢â¬ her response is likely toÃ favorÃ the PresidentÃ¢â¬â¢s missile defense system. With an emphasis, instead, on the words Ã¢â¬Å"effectively defends,Ã¢â¬ her remark is likely to beÃ againstthe PresidentÃ¢â¬â¢s missile defense system. And by using neither emphasis, she can later claim that her response was on either side of the issue.AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s version of the fallacy of accent allowed only a shift in which syllable is accented within a word. 20. Amphiboly This is an error due to taking a grammatically ambiguous phrase in two different ways during the reasoning. Example: In a cartoon, two elephants are driving their car down the road in India. They say, Ã¢â¬Å"WeÃ¢â¬â¢d better not get out here,Ã¢â¬ as they pass a sign saying: ELEPHANTS PLEASE STAY IN YOUR CAR Upon one interpretation of the grammar, the pronoun Ã¢â¬Å"YOURÃ¢â¬ refers to the elephants in the car, but on another it refers to those humans who are driving cars in the vicini ty.UnlikeÃ equivocation, which is due to multiple meanings of a phrase, amphiboly is due to syntactic ambiguity, ambiguity caused by multiple ways of understanding the grammar of the phrase. 21. Equivocation Equivocation is the illegitimate switching of the meaning of a term during the reasoning. Example: Brad is a nobody, but since nobody is perfect, Brad must be perfect, too. The term Ã¢â¬Å"nobodyÃ¢â¬ changes its meaning without warning in the passage. So does the term Ã¢â¬Å"political jokesÃ¢â¬ in this joke: I donÃ¢â¬â¢t approve of political jokes. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve seen too many of them get elected. FALLACIES OF GRAMMATICAL ANALOGY 22.Composition The composition fallacy occurs when someone mistakenly assumes that a characteristic of some or all the individuals in a group is also a characteristic of the group itself, the group Ã¢â¬Å"composedÃ¢â¬ of those members. It is the converse of theÃ divisionÃ fallacy. Example: Each human cell is very lightweight, so a human be ing composed of cells is also very lightweight. 23. Division Merely because a group as a whole has a characteristic, it often doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t follow that individuals in the group have that characteristic. If you suppose that it does follow, when it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t, you commit the fallacy of division.It is the converse of theÃ compositionÃ fallacy. Example: JoshuaÃ¢â¬â¢s soccer team is the best in the division because it had an undefeated season and shared the division title, so Joshua, who is their goalie, must be the best goalie in the division. 24. Figure of Speech or Parallel-word Construction A fallacy characterized by ambiguities due to the fact that different words in Greek (and in Latin) may have different cases or genders even though the case endings or gender endings are the same. Since this is not widespread in other languages or since it coincides with other fallacies (e. g. quivocation, see above) writers tend to interpret it very broadly. Examples: Ã¢â¬Å"Activists have been labeled as idealists, sadists, anarchists, communists, and just about any name that can come to mind ending inÃ -ist, likeÃ samok-ist, saba-ist, bad-ist,Ã and of course, who could forgetdevil-ist? Ã¢â¬ (The writer has the unsaid argument that any name ending inÃ -istÃ is viewed as Ã¢â¬Å"trouble-makersÃ¢â¬ by our society. ) An introductory book on philosophy has an appendix entitle Ã¢â¬Å"List of IsmsÃ¢â¬ the proceeds to list the schools of thought in philosophy. (Not all words that end inÃ -ismÃ is a school of thought: take for example,Ã syllogism. )